Cryptography 1 by Stanford on Coursera is really good too : https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto
Another great crypto resource (though it's really an intro course) that's out there is the Cryptography course on Coursera: https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto . It's taught by Dan Boneh who, in addition to being a genius, also happens to be incredibly talented at explaining crypto concepts in a way that leads to deep understanding. It's a great treat watching him write out and explain different proofs from memory.
After taking these two crypto courses, I signed up for CS155 https://crypto.stanford.edu/cs155/ , which is his undergrad class on security at Stanford (they were offering it through their professional center, I don't think they still offer it, which is a bummer)
Prof. Dan Boneh's Cryptography I is really good.
Compared to many other MOOCs, it provides solid foundations while being easy to follow.
Not a cryptocurrency course per se, but Dan Boneh's course on Cryptography is an excellent introduction to most of the building blocks of cryptosystems, including the technology underlying most cryptocurrencies.
In terms of level, it is more than a little technical (programming exercises in both cryptography and cryptanalysis await you!), while still remaining far from rigorous (compared to, say, a graduate-level cryptography text).
Three Coursera MOOCs I particularly enjoyed:
* Discrete Optimization: almost entirely problem-driven, very challenging and entertaining prof; https://www.coursera.org/learn/discrete-optimization
* Crypto I: very deep, thorough and crystal clear explanations; https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto
* Computer Networks: excellent overall course covering a wide variety of topics; https://www.coursera.org/instructor/~517478 , https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLfgkuLYEOvGMWvHRgFAcj...
The content is actually pretty terrible and not likely to help anyone understand much about TLS.
This however is a decent resource for learning the things you're asking about such as public key crypto, asymetric vs symetric, digital signatures, etc. Specifically weeks 5 and 6. The whole course is good though.
If you come from a computer science/math background, and want an intro to cryptography in general, I can strongly recommend the Coursera course from Stanford University by professor Dan Boneh - https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto . To really understand the implementations of security libraries and tools, one should be at least familiar with the fundamentals and terminology of crypto. Otherwise you are blindly encrypting things without being aware of whether you are actually securing things.
The course is free and takes 6 weeks long, and is very interesting if you had never dwelled too deep into security or crypto. There's also a new cryptography class that will be available in September of 2017 - https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto2 .
Learning How To Learn by Barbara Oakly on Coursera https://www.coursera.org/learn/learning-how-to-learn It teaches you fundamentals of how the brain works, and how to improve your learning. It is free. Those three factors make it a great first course.
Cryptography I by Dan Boneh on Coursera https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto I actually can't recommend it to everyone because I didn't complete it and I just wasn't intelligent enough on the material to complete it. This requires one to be good with advanced maths, and I got migraine issues from this (same as with advanced maths in my youth). However it is very well explained. The problem was me, not Dan Boneh's course.
Positive Psychology by Barbara Fredrickson https://www.coursera.org/learn/positive-psychology My significant other completed this course (I have not tried it yet), and highly recommends it. Its on my list.
Securing Democracy by J. Alex Halderman https://www.coursera.org/learn/digital-democracy I thought I was interested in this subject, and I was to some extend, but I was not enough interested to follow the course to the end. However the course as far as I took it was excellent.
Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Comparing Theory and Practice by Edwin Bakker https://www.coursera.org/learn/terrorism I didn't complete this course either but it was interesting and good nonetheless.
There are just a few of the courses I can recommend, and it doesn't contain the one I'm currently one because I haven't completed it yet (will likely include it once completed). There's also courses I cannot recommend (it also depends on the audience). I will resort to the positive angle though wink .
One thing I got from the courses is that it is OK to not complete a course. You can regard it as time waste which is fair enough. My goal is not to get a certificate though. That's merely a byproduct. My goal is to learn (which is a process), to satisfy my taste for knowledge. However Coursera changed its terms of usage last years and ever since I used the platform less.
If you are interested in more than an article, this course is very good.
Sorry to spoil it, but the conclusion will basically be the same as the article, as in "just don't".
The OP should take https://www.coursera.org/learn/crypto
I'm currently working through Cryptography 1 on Coursera and struggling with some of the maths involved, so hopefully this will help.
Dan Boneh's "Introduction to Cryptography".
I've completed a bunch of Coursera courses. Quality really varies. Even within the 9 course Data Science specialization  track some courses were rather poor while the rest were very good. I'm currently taking the #5 rated course . It is excellent. But I'm only taking it because the Statisical Inference course in the Data Science specialization was so weak.
I would also recommend the Cryptography 1 course by Dan Boneh on Coursera . Excellent if you are at all interested in the subject.
I always download the lecture videos, slides, quizzes, labs and exams because, as mentioned, many of the courses don't allow access once the class is completed.
You definitely have to have plenty of self discipline to complete MOOCs. And I don't have any delusions about a Coursera certificate being useful in landing a job; that's not what I'm after. I'm building the skills I want to apply to my own projects.
That Coursera link should be https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
The first course happens regularly, while "part 2" has been "2 months away" for at least a year now.
That's good advice, and I've given it myself, but that doesn't mean you shouldn't read and play around with cryptography if it interests you.
I implemented a simplified version of the referenced Vaudenay attack as part of Dan Boneh's Cryptography I course on courseara+. The course was very interesting, and also fun. I'm not ready to go out and implement my own cryptography, but knowing a bit about the subject makes me a more intelligent consumer of crypto libraries.
While warning people away from implementing their own cryptography we have to make sure we don't scare people off from the subject altogether. After all, absolute top experts have to start somewhere.
Coursera/Stanford have a crypto course going on right now. It's already well under way but you can watch all the videos and (I believe) still do the quizzes and just pass on the certificate. https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
Rule of crypto #1 - never implement your own crypto.
If you want to know what they are talking about, here are two free courses that go over all of that stuff and more. I particularly liked error oracle decryption exercise from coursera crypto class:
The next iteration of Stanford's Coursera Cryptography 1 course starts on Jan 5: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
Does anyone know how this compares to Coursera course  or  + ?
Try this "Crypto I" course
"As a direct result of this "QWERTY" approach to explaining quantum mechanics - which you can see reflected in almost every popular book and article, down to the present -- the subject acquired an undeserved reputation for being hard."
The same goes for cryptography. Most cryptography courses spend at least the first hour talking about historical irrelevance like substitution ciphers etc. Crypto I  (Dan Boneh) follows the latter approach, i.e. starting from modern theoretical principles, defining security properties in terms of computational complexity and games.
I quite liked the Quantum Computing course  (Anuj Dawar) from the Cambridge CST, which also followed that approach, though it didn't present this stuff as a "generalisation of probability". No-cloning theorem in 3rd or 4th lecture, IIRC.
edit: After reading this article fully, I think it would have made for a good "lecture 0" in the above course, bridging the gap between more elementary maths and it.
A good complement to this set of challenges is Dan Boneh's Crypto class on Coursera. The coursera class is more theory-driven, whereas these challenges are more practical... they mix well. https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
So I don't know what textbook to suggest but are you aware of: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto I've heard it's pretty good.
In general you should prefer crypto constructions which are a result of global competitions. For example AES and SHA3.
You should avoid at all costs anything that has been standardized by NIST without going through years of reviews by international cryptographers. Dual_EC_DRBG is a clear example of crypto construction which falls into this category.
This is my general rule of thumb.
However knowing which ciphers one should use is not enough! You absolutely need to know HOW to use them. A basic and superficial example is AES in ECB mode, which is semantically secure as long as you use a key to encrypt one and only one single block. Another one is, for example, after how many encrypted blocks a key should be rotated, based on the underlying cipher used.
Once you have learnt how to use the basic building blocks of crypto you are then NOT supposed to write your own implementation and instead use existing ones....there is a small problem with this....they are broken or they either not implement all the necessary crypto constructions you need. OpenSSL is an example of broken crypto implementation, and instead NaCl does not have TLS implemented.
So this is a short summary and my personal opinion of why crypto is hard. On top of all this there are not enough experts out there which have the time to review crypto implementations or new and old constructions, and we are living a historical period where we desperately need crypto to protect our privacy.
So my final suggestions is to take some of your spare time and go through Dan Boneh Crypto 1 at Coursera: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
It is worth every single minute.
Once you have done that, I would also suggest you to take the Matasano Crypto challenges: http://www.matasano.com/articles/crypto-challenges/
Finally I want to thank everybody who have taken their time to create and maintain both Crypto 1 course and the Matasano challenges.
I am in the same position. Stanford Online started a Coursera course on cryptography yesterday, might be interesting for you.
Both coursera and udacity have amazing courses on crypto.
Coursera crypto I: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
Coursera crypto II: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto2
I took coursera crypto I myself. It was a lot of work, but I learned a ton.
Crypto I was very well put together, Crypto II has a high threshold to maintain 
This article coincides perfectly with the online Stanford Crypto class that just started up: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto We just covered the principles of good encryption, and this is a great exercise to witness in that context.
If you're open to an online course, there's a Stanford intro one coming up on Coursera - https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
Dan Boneh's Cryptography I class on Coursera is about to start again in just a few days. I highly recommend it: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
Dan did such a great job on the Stanford Crypto course, it's worth learning the basics to learn the important bits.
Yes, I've heard about the Matasano's Crypto Challenge, but want to recommend Coursera's Crypto courses too: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
I'd recommend the Coursera crypto course: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
You might like the Matasano Crypto Challenge , or maybe just a coursera course on crypto .
For those interested, Dan Boneh's course on Cryptography starts another session as of today.
Dan Boneh's crypto course is starting in 5 days on Coursera. Syllabus is not same as the OP's course but is very good and useful nonetheless.
Try Dan Boneh's crypto course on coursera . It covers quite a lot of ground, both practical and theoretical, and includes programming exercises similar to the matasano puzzles. Without a doubt it's one of the best courses of the dozen MOOCs I've taken. There's also a followup course  (I haven't taken it yet personally, but I believe the currently scheduled run will be the first).
Interestingly enough, there's also an upcoming security course (with no date planned yet) which will cover the application programming part of security and will be co-taught by him. 
There is the free "Cryptography 1" course on Coursera ( https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto ).
I'm taking it right now. There's a lot of maths and theory, and it's quite a difficult course, but it's been a great way to learn the foundations of cryptography.
sweisAnother session of Dan Boneh's online crypto course starts up tomorrow.
Cryptography I by Dan Boneh (Stanford University): https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto
The videos are probably available for download somewhere else, so you don't have to wait. Someone posted a site here on HN that saved all the coursera videos, but I can't remember the name.
Each video lasts ~20 min if I remember correctly, but they are very intensive. I never wanted to watch more than one or two per day, my mind would have blown.
https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto is excellent
If you find this kind of stuff interesting, take Dan Boneh's Cryptography class on Coursera. It covers issues like this very well...
Zenst - it sounds like you have a lot of interest in cryptography, and your lack of familiarity with PBKDF2 and friends suggests that you have just entered this space.
I highly recommend https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto as a great introduction into some of the more interesting elements you are working through.
Don't mean to be a shill for Coursera, but if you enjoyed this article you might like Coursera's crypto class: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto I found it really challenging in some places, but also quite fun.
Udacity also has a crypto course: http://www.udacity.com/overview/Course/cs387/CourseRev/apr20... I haven't tried it yet, but it looks a bit more in-depth in some places than the Coursera course.
For those interested... You can still get in on Coursera's Intro to Cryptography course from Stanford. It's been great so far, on week 3 of 6, but you can catch up!
Just finished the class today myself, and yep, that's the most repeated advice.
The class repeats starting Monday, if anyone is interested in learning the basics of how all this stuff works.
Take a look at: https://www.coursera.org/course/crypto and: https://www.coursera.org/course/algo
to fill those gaps. I've taken both classes at my university and have learned more in the first few lectures of these free online classes than I learned all semester at university.